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ACADEMIC ASPECT: INSPECTION SUPERVISION

                                                                                 INTRODUCTION

By virtue of his position the headmaster or the principal of a school is the functionary of its destiny.  He can make or a mar a school by his administrative and academic efficiency or inefficiency.  He occupies a central place in the entire process of school organization and administration.  Various educationists have recognized his/her importance in different words.

Dr. Jaswant Singh:  The headmaster or the principal of a school is the hub of the educational process.  On his ability or skill, as a sound and effective educational leader depends the success of a school system.

P.C.Wren.  What the mainspring is to watch:  the fly wheel to the machine or the engine to the steam-ship the headmaster is to the school.  The character of the school reflects and proclaims the professional character of the headmaster.  He is the seal and the school is the wax.

“He is the organizer, leader, governor, business director, coordinator, idea, friend.”

 

ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Supervision, Guidance, Maintenance of Standards, Institutional Evaluation, Time-table, Subject-class, Co-curricular Activities.

 SUPERVISION
 Definition:  It is defined as the effort to stimulate, co-ordinate and guide the continued growth of the teachers in school, both individually and collectively.
 According to Barton & Burckner, “Supervision is an expert technical service primarily aimed at studying and improving co-operatively all factors which affect the child’s growth and development.”
Supervision’, according to Barr and Burton is the foundation on which all programmes for improvement of teaching must be built.
 Thus the term supervision has been defined by defined by different educationists in different ways.  But all agree that the improvement of instruction is a cooperative process in which all the teachers participate and the supervisor is an educational leader who acts as a stimulator, guide and consultant to the teacher in their effort to improve instruction.

 AIMS OF SUPERVISON AND INSPECTION
 Inspection and supervision is no longer considered to be fault finding and criticizing.  In reality, it is for improvement in teaching-learning process and situation.  It is providing leadership in the field of education.  Its main aim is to provide democratic leadership to teachers to put them on right lines and to set before them goals within reach. 
 Another aim of inspection and supervision is to check inefficiency in schools and find out gaps in the proper functioning of school and ensure they are bridged.

 TYPES OF SUPERVISION
 Basically there are three types of supervision.

1)    Clinical type

2)    Preventive type

3)    The creative type.

1) Clinical Type:  This proves of supervision follows five steps as opined by Gold hammer, who developed this system.  The five steps are

1)    Observation

2)    Analysis

3)    Strategy planning

4)    Conference

5)    Post-conference analysis (follow up).
The system also advocated teacher-supervisor agreement at each stage.  The supervisor, after his supervision will analyse the data and discuss his analysis with the teacher for the improvement of instruction.

2) PREVENTIVE TYPE:  In this type, the supervisor before hand anticipates problems and helps the teacher to avoid problems/shortfalls/deficiencies.  This type of inspection helps the teachers to meet situation with confidence as they forsee the problems beforehand and act as his friend and guide.  Therefore, this type of inspection is more useful and helpful in every respect as compared to the traditional type.

3)THE CREATIVE TYPE:  In this type both the teacher and the inspector feel open-minded.  This system promotes freedom flexibility and encourages open mind.  In this system, the teacher and the supervisor, work together, to collaborate, to evaluate and to describe each other’s work.  This encourages teachers in all respects.  This can  be called the best type of inspection.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION
 S.NO.                INSPECTION                                                                                             SUPERVISION

1.                 It is a bureaucratic model.                                                                           It is more administrative in nature with lot of officialdom.

2.                It helps in improving the teaching process of teachers.                         In this orders will be given.

3.                It is to check in-efficiency and fault finding                                                It is a democratic model.

4.               Guidance is provided.                                                                                    It is for providing guidance and counseling.

IMPORTANCE OF SUPERVISION

 SUPERVISION HELPS TEACHERS TO PLAN FOR BETTER INSTRUCTION:

Instructional planning is considered as the first step in the improvement of instruction. Therefore, it is recommended that the supervisor should help the teachers to develop and improve skills in instructikonal designs and to use a model of instruction as a  guide to instructional planning.  Instructional planning includes lesson plan, unit plans and year plans.  It is essential that the headmaster should provide necessary guidance in writing Instructional plans.

HELPS TEACHERS TO USE MODERN METHODS OF TEACHING

Methods of teaching are an important part of presenting instruction in the classroom in an effective manner.  Therefore, the supervisor should help the teachers in using modern methods of teaching in the classroom.  It is the supervisor’s responsibility to help the teachers to keep abreast of new educational techniques and to apply them in the classroom.

HELPS TEACHERS IN CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT.
 Both teachers and school management are in agreement that discipline is the most serious problem in the schools.  Supervision will help the teachers to acquire better skills of classroom management.  Supervision it is suggested should aim at enabling the teachers to develop preventive and corrective measures of discipline in the classroom situation.

HELPS TEACHERS TO WORK-TOGETHER
In order to accomplish much of the schools’ work teachers must learn to work together in groups and one of the objectives of supervision is the enhancement of

 HELPS TEACHERS IN GETTING PROPER GUIDANCE FROM EXPERTS

Supervision is to provide academic guidance by a teacher or persons/experts/specialists in different school subjects so that proper guidance may be provided to them.  This kind of supervision can help teachers in getting proper guidance from experts.

SUPERVISION IN ESWSENTIAL IN PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTING VARIOUS DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN THE SCHOOL

All the developmental activities need guidance and direction at the planning provide necessary direction and guidance at every stage.  Right type of supervision is mainly concerned with helping teachers in planning, in selection of strategies and resources with proper monitoring and evaluation techniques.

PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE

It is a well known fact that prevention is better than cure.  Right kind of supervision provides better insight into the learning problems of students, HRD problems, an insight into maintenance of school plant in advance and helps in avoiding the problems.  It also helps teachers to meet situations successfully before they actually arise.  It is therefore, more useful and helpful in every respect when compared to schools without supervision.

 ROLE OF HEADMASTER IN ACADEMIC SUPERVISION
 The headmaster is the team leader and the spirit of cooperation should permeate in his dealing with the staff, pupils and community.  He, with collaboration of his staff, should work for accomplishing the objectives and ideals of the institution.  The success and achievement of the school largely depends on his efficiency, ability, alertness, imagination, experience and resourcefulness.  In fact, he is the friend, philosopher and guide in the school.

Administration is related to totality of the school organization whereas academic supervision is a part of administration.  The headmaster has to play a vital role as administrator as well as academic supervisor. His role as academic supervisor includes the following aspects.

·        He should inspect all the classes while teaching is going on and sit in each class to find out instructional strategy and methodology adopted by the teachers.  He should check their teaching notes, diaries etc.

·        Class-room supervision/inspection should not disturb the classwork.

·        He should not point our defects noticed in the teaching before the students.  Individually, he should call teachers and discuss with them the mistakes committed.  In otherwords he should never hurt the feelings of teachers before students.

·        He should arrange panel inspection with subject experts to derive the benefits of subject specialists in improving the teaching competencies of his teachers.

·        Innovative approaches like Team-teaching, Microteaching, Tutorial should be planned for the better instruction.

·        He should keep himself abreast to modern developments and implement modern strategies of class-room manmagement, curriculum transaction, evaluation, recording and reporting system in his school.  To get better results he should appoint a team of experts and seek their advice in this regard.

·        He should organize staff meetings, subject clubs and discuss with the staff members various issues relating to academic improvement programme.

·        He should provide necessary infrastructure facilities in the school such as equipment, furniture, computers, T.V, tape recorders for effective teaching.

·        He should supervise the work of students and check periodically the work done by them and ascertain reasons for educational backwardness of students.

·        He should arrange for expert guidance to teachers and encourage them to participate in the in-service training programmes, extension work and community service.